Homotopies

Homotopies (AbstractHomotopy) are at the heart of homotopy continuation. A homotopy is a parameterized family $H(x,t)$ of polynomial systems. By convention, homotopies are tracked from $t=1$ to $t=0$, i.e., $H(x,1)$ is considered the start system and $H(x,0)$ is the target system.

As for AbstractSystems, AbstractHomotopy and Homotopy share different purposes. A Homotopy is intended for formulating your problem symbolically. A Homotopy can be converted to two different basic AbstractHomotopys, a CompiledHomotopy (fast, but introduce compilation overhead) and an InterpretedHomotopy (slower, but not compilation overhead).

HomotopyContinuation.ModelKit.CompiledHomotopyType
CompiledHomotopy <: AbstractHomotopy

An AbstractHomotopy which automatically compiles a straight line program for the fast evaluation of a homotopy H and its Jacobian. For large homotopies the compilation can take some time and require a large amount of memory. If this is a problem consider InterpretedHomotopy.

CompiledSystem(F::System)

Construct a CompiledSystem from the given System F.

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HomotopyContinuation.ModelKit.InterpretedHomotopyType
InterpretedHomotopy <: AbstractHomotopy

An AbstractHomotopy which automatically generates a program for the fast evaluation of H and its Jacobian. The program is however, not compiled but rather interpreted. See also CompiledHomotopy.

InterpretedHomotopy(H::Homotopy)

Construct an InterpretedHomotopy from the given Homotopy H.

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Below you can find a list of all pre-defined homotopies. Additionally the following higher level constructors are exported.

AffineChartHomotopy

HomotopyContinuation.AffineChartHomotopyType
AffineChartHomotopy(H::AbstractHomotopy, v::PVector{T,N})

Given a homotopy $H(x,t): (ℙ^{m_1} × ⋯ × ℙ^{m_N}) × ℂ → ℂⁿ$ this creates a new affine homotopy $H̄$ which operates on the affine chart defined by the vector $v ∈ ℙ^{m_1} × ⋯ × ℙ^{m_N}$ and the augmented conditions $vᵀx = 1$.

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HomotopyContinuation.on_affine_chartMethod
on_affine_chart(H::Union{Homotopy,AbstractHomotopy}, proj_dims)

Construct an AffineChartHomotopy on a randomly generated chart v. Each entry is drawn idepdently from a univariate normal distribution.

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CoefficientHomotopy

HomotopyContinuation.CoefficientHomotopyType
CoefficientHomotopy(
F::Union{AbstractSystem,System};
start_coefficients,
target_coefficients,
)

Construct the homotopy $H(x, t) = ∑_{a ∈ Aᵢ} (c_a t + (1-t)d_a) x^a$ where $c_a$ are the start coefficients and $d_a$ the target coefficients.

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IntrinsicSubspaceHomotopy

HomotopyContinuation.IntrinsicSubspaceHomotopyType
IntrinsicSubspaceHomotopy(F::System, V::LinearSubspace, W::LinearSubspace)
IntrinsicSubspaceHomotopy(F::AbstractSystem, V::LinearSubspace, W::LinearSubspace)

Creates a homotopy $H(x,t) = F(γ(t)x)$ where $γ(t)$ is a family of affine subspaces such that $γ(1) = V$ and $γ(0) = W$. Here $γ(t)$ is the geodesic between V and W in the affine Grassmanian, i.e., it is the curve of minimal length connecting V and W. See also LinearSubspace and geodesic and the references therein.

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HomotopyContinuation.set_subspaces!Function
set_subspaces!(H::IntrinsicSubspaceHomotopy, start::LinearSubspace, target::LinearSubspace)

Update the homotopy H to track from the affine subspace start to target.

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ParameterHomotopy

HomotopyContinuation.ParameterHomotopyType
ParameterHomotopy(F::Union{AbstractSystem,System}; start_parameters, target_parameters)
ParameterHomotopy(F::Union{AbstractSystem,System}, start_parameters, target_parameters)

Construct the parameter homotopy $H(x,t) = F(x; t p + (1 - t) q)$ where $p$ is start_parameters and $q$ is target_parameters.

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StraightLineHomotopy

HomotopyContinuation.StraightLineHomotopyType
StraightLineHomotopy(G::System, F::System; gamma = 1.0)
StraightLineHomotopy(G::AbstractSystem, F::AbstractSystem; gamma = 1.0)

Constructs the straight line homotopy $H(x, t) = γ t G(x) + (1-t) F(x)$ where $γ$ is gamma.

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